Assessment of energy expenditure and fasting triglyceride response to 24 hours of overfeeding with diets consisting of complex versus simple carbohydrates

Program: Abstracts - Orals, Featured Poster Presentations, and Posters
Session: MON 758-775-Beta Cells, Glucose Control & Complications
Monday, June 17, 2013: 1:45 PM-3:45 PM
Expo Halls ABC (Moscone Center)

Poster Board MON-775
Susan M Bonfiglio*1, Mostafa Ibrahim2, Maximilian Hohenadel3, Jonathan Krakoff4 and Marie S Thearle5
1National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, Phoenix, AZ, 2National Institute Of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, Phoenix, AZ, 3National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, AZ, 4NIH, Phoenix, AZ, 5Natl Institutes of Hlth, Phoenix, AZ
Background: Consumption of simple sugars has been implicated in development of obesity, while low fat, high carbohydrate (CHO) diets containing complex CHO are recommended to maintain a healthy weight. However, it is unclear if the 24h energy expenditure (EE) or metabolic response during overconsumption of diets varying in the source of CHO differs. This study investigates the EE and fasting triglyceride (TG) response to 24h of overfeeding with 200% of energy requirements with diets varying in complex versus simple CHO.

Methods:   Whole room indirect calorimetry to assess 24h EE was done during 5 different diets in 11 subjects (8M/3F; 4C/3AA/3NA/1H; age 42±9yrs; % body fat 31±10%; 24h EE 1992±271; TG 95±59 mg/dl), all with normal glucose regulation as assessed by a 75g oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was determined by DXA. The 5 diets were: fasting; eucaloric (50% mixed CHO, 20% PRO, 30% F); and three high CHO diets with 200% energy requirements (75% simple (CSS), complex (CCC), or mixed (CM) CHO, 20% PRO, 5%F). There was a 3 day, weight maintaining period in between dietary interventions. TG and insulin concentrations were drawn before and after the CCC and CSS diets.   

Results: Compared to 24h EE during energy balance, 24h EE increased by 12.7±5.7% with the CM overfeeding diet (P<0.001). There were no differences in the increase in 24h EE, diet related EE, or respiratory quotient (a proxy for the ratio of CHO to lipid oxidation) between the three high CHO diets. However, sleeping EE was higher in the CSS diet compared with the CCC diet (Δ=147; P = 0.03), as was the percent increase in sleeping EE over measures in energy balance (17.1±7.0 v 7.6±9.0%; P=0.02). Comparing the CCC diet with the CSS diet, both the changes in fasting insulin (Δ= 2.7±3.3 v 0.1±2.3 μIU/ml; P=0.006) and the changes in TG (Δ=32±18 v 11±25 mg/dl; P=0.01) were greater the morning after the CCC diet. Differences in the TG response to overeating were largely determined by FFM (β=2.2 mg/dl; P<0.001) and FM (β=1.0 mg/dl; P=0.04).

Conclusion: When caloric intake of high CHO diets exceeds energy needs, the overall increase in 24h EE is similar regardless of the CHO source.  However, the increased TG and insulin concentrations observed the morning after the CCC diet may indicate ongoing processing of these CHO, and that our time frame of 24h was not long enough to capture the full EE response to this diet.

Nothing to Disclose: SMB, MI, MH, JK, MST

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