Bone Mineral Density And Its Relationship With Lifestyle And Environmental Factors

Program: Abstracts - Orals, Featured Poster Presentations, and Posters
Session: SAT 248-267-Osteoporosis II
Saturday, June 15, 2013: 1:45 PM-3:45 PM
Expo Halls ABC (Moscone Center)

Poster Board SAT-264
Kamal A Al-Shoumer* and Aida Hussein Ali
Kuwait University/Faculty of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Safat, Kuwait

It is well known that several factors such as genetic, dietary, lifestyle and environmental ones may affect bone health. Data on the effects of lifestyle and environmental factors on bone health in Kuwaiti subjects are unknown.


Bone mineral density (BMD) was studied in healthy females who were not known to have previous illnesses for at least 12 months and were not taking any medication. BMD of L2-L4 spine, both femurs and distal forearms were measured by DEXA. Information on lifestyle and environmental factors were gained from a well designed questionnaire, on issues related to their education, marital status, occupation, diet, exercise, smoking and sun exposure. Effects of these environmental and lifestyle factors on bone strength reflected by BMD was assessed.


140 Healthy Kuwaiti females, of age range 20-69 years, were studied. There (mean±SEM) age and BMI were 44±1 years and 28.8±0.5 kg/m2. Out of these, 64% were either students or employed and 36% were either unemployed or retired; 24% were undergraduate and 76% were graduate; 64% were married, 17% were smokers; 14% were on diet; 50% were doing variable daily exercise; and 79% were exposed to sun < 10 minutes daily. When subjects were stratified into 5 groups based on their age decades (group 1, n=29, aged 20-29 years; group 2, n=19, aged 30-39; group 3, n=42, aged 40-49; group 4, n=35, aged 50-59; and group 5, n=15, aged 60-69), their mean BMD of all studied body areas demonstrated a gradual increase from group 1 until group 3 when it started to decline thereafter. Among the whole groups, BMD at the area of right distal forearm was significantly higher in graduates than undergraduates (p=0.014), at the area of left femur total was significantly lower in smokers than non-smokers (p=0.04), at the area of left femur neck was significantly higher in subjects exposed to sun 10-30 minutes than those exposed less than 10 minutes daily (p=0.0001), and at the area of right neck trochanter was significantly higher in those who do exercise daily than those who do not (p=0.044). Married subjects had significantly raised BMD of total body (P=0.009) and left femur (p=0.007) than single, and employed had significantly elevated BMD of lumbar spine (p=0.0019) and right femur neck (p=0.0013).


Reduced level of education, smoking, limited sun exposure and exercise are associated with a reduced, whereas being married and employed were associated with raised BMD at certain areas of skeleton in healthy Kuwaiti females.

Nothing to Disclose: KAA, AHA

*Please take note of The Endocrine Society's News Embargo Policy at

Sources of Research Support: Kuwait University, College of Graduate Students (CGS)