No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at the Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

Program: Abstracts - Orals, Poster Previews, and Posters
Session: SAT 625-656-GI Regulatory Peptides; Glucose Metabolism
Saturday, March 7, 2015: 1:00 PM-3:00 PM
Hall D-F, Diabetes (San Diego Convention Center)

Poster Board SAT-653
Joshua Lowndes, MA, Stephanie Sinnett, MA and James Marshall Rippe, MD
Rippe Lifestyle Institution, Celebration, FL
High levels of fructose consumption have been shown to promote changes in insulin resistance and associated parameters.  Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important.

All Participants were apparently healthy and weight stable (no change in weight greater than 3% over the past three months) prior to enrollment.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of five groups, four that contained low fat milk with added sugar in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption in the US, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group.  Milk was consumed in amounts so that the added sugar contributed a target percentage of the calories required for weight maintenance. The groups were as follows: Fructose 9%, Glucose 9%, High fructose corn syrup 18%, sucrose 18% and an unsweetened milk control consumed so milk contributed 18% of the weight-maintenance calories.  The energy intake required for weight maintenance was estimated for each participant using the MIflin St Joer equation and using an appropriate activity factor determined by responses to a physical activity questionnaire.  The intervention lasted ten weeks.  This study is a preliminary analysis on the one hundred fifty two participants (M=65, F=87) who had completed the intervention at the time of submission.

In the entire study population there was a 1.8lbs increase in weight (161.4 ± 27.8 vs 163.2 ± 28.7lbs), which was statistically significant (p<0.001), but the change in weight was comparable among groups (interaction p<0.001).   There were no changes in fasting glucose (88.8 ± 7.0 vs 90.5 ± 9.6mg/dl), insulin (8.5 ± 5.8 vs 8.9 ± 7.3µIU/ml), insulin resistance as measured by HOMA (1.9 ± 1.3 vs 2.0 ± 1.5), or glucose AUC in response to a standard 2 hour OGTT (13.7 ± 3.1 vs 14.0 ± 3.0mg.min/dl, p>0.05 for all).  In all cases the response among groups was comparable (interaction p>0.05).

These data suggest that, when consumed at the median American intake for added sugar, added sugar does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance.  Furthermore, at this level of consumption, the identity of the added sugar is not important.

Nothing to Disclose: JL, SS, JMR

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Sources of Research Support: Research support by the Corn Refiners Association