Adolescents with Prediabetes Lack Key Species By Quantitative, Core Gut Microbiome Analysis - a Case-Control Study

Program: Abstracts - Orals, Poster Previews, and Posters
Session: SUN 699-739-Insulin Signaling/Insulin Action and Pathopathology of Diabetes (posters)
Basic/Clinical
Sunday, April 3, 2016: 1:15 PM-3:15 PM
Exhibit/Poster Hall (BCEC)

Poster Board SUN 702
Charikleia Stefanaki*1, Athanasios Michos2, Eleftheria Roma-Giannikou2, Emilia Mantzou3, George Paltoglou4, Darryl Landis5 and Flora Bacopoulou1
1University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece, 2Athens University Medical School, Goudi, Athens, Greece, 3Endocrine Unit of Clinical and Translational Research, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece, 4Athens University Medical School, Athens, Greece, 5GENOVA Diagnostics, Inc., Asheville, NC
Experimental animal, and human studies have associated gut “dysbiosis” with a subclinical, systematic inflammatory state, occuring in glucose intolerance disorders. This case-control study examined the differences in intestinal ecology, between prediabetic adolescents, and matched healthy controls, all aged 12-17 years.  Our null hypothesis was that there are no differences between the two groups. We performed OGTT, and obtained blood serum to determine: LDL-P, LDL-Small Particle, HDL-P, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, total cholesterol, hsCRP, IL-6, IL-8, PAI-1, adiponectin, insulin, proinsulin,  c-peptide, leptin, and fecal samples for measuring pancreatic elastase-1, products of protein breakdown, fats, calprotectin, fecal secretory IgA, beta-glucuronidase concentrations, and for a semi-quantitative determination of the main commensal bacteria of the gut microbiome. The method targeted 16S ribosomal DNA by a proprietary PCR, and SYBR green detection platform. (GI Effects Comprehensive Stool Profile 2200-GENOVA Diagnostics©). The prediabetic group (n=10; males=5, females=5;15.2±1.81 years) exhibited increased fasting morning glucose concentrations in three random evaluations (p=0.044; p=0.039; p<0.001, respectively), increased OGTT Glucose at 0’ (p=0.019), and at 60’ (p=0.041), PAI-1 (p=0.047), insulin (p=0.015), proinsulin (p=0.038), and c-peptide concentrations (p=0.005), along with decreased Colony Forming Units (CFUs) of Ruminococcus spp [(Prediabetic group:  0.78E8 ± 0.77E8 CFUs); Control group: 1.86E8 ± 1.56E8 CFUs; t(19)=2.145;95%CI:2.43E6–2.16E8;p=0.045)], in the fecal sample analysis. The control group (n=14; males=5, females=9;15.3±1.07 years) was 8.5 times less likely to consume antibiotics until the age of 3, and 1.75 times more likely to have a positive family history of autoimmune diseases. Ruminococcus spp. play a pivotal role in the fermentation of dietary, hydrolysis-resistant starches (RS) that provide the energy substrate of beneficial gut microbiota, thus, promoting, and stabilizing the gut commensal microbial community (1). The lack of RS-degrading species - possibly due to the increased consumption of antibiotics until the age of 3 - in the prediabetic group, seems to herald the onset of glucose intolerance via a decrease of beneficial microbiota populations, and consequent alterations in regional immunity. These results might indicate a potential role of prebiotics and probiotics in diabetes mellitus prevention.

(1) Ze X et al. Gut Microbes 2013; 4(3):236.

(1) Ze X et al. Gut Microbes 2013; 4(3):236.

Disclosure: DL: Chief Scientific Officer, Darryl Landis is the Vice President and Chief Medical Officer of GENOVA Diagnostics, Inc. Asheville, North Carolina, United States.. Nothing to Disclose: CS, AM, ER, EM, GP, FB

*Please take note of The Endocrine Society's News Embargo Policy at https://www.endocrine.org/news-room/endo-annual-meeting/pr-resources-for-endo

Sources of Research Support: GENOVA Diagnostics, Inc. provided the GI Effects Comprehensive Stool 2200 Kits.